Carrot Museum Reference Material

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World Carrot Museum

Carrots - Reference Sources and Further Reading

Main - Books - Internet - JSTOR (journal archive)  - Other

Main Sources:

A cautionary note - The Carrot Museum cautions you to not believe all studies. Please trust your own judgement.  As a researcher I am happy to share and cite studies that appear promising, that carrots provide health giving properties.   However the human body and individual metabolisms and gene make up are all different so it is difficult to be positive that any of it will work for any particular individual.  In fact it is often difficult to ensure, or decipher, whether any of the research is not financially or otherwise biased.  You can find just as many convincing studies supporting mainstream treatments, together with other evidence that there is no effect. Also many studies are based on animal tests, rather than humans.

ArscottSara ArscottSherry A. Tanumihardjo - Carrots of Many Colors Provide Basic Nutrition and Bioavailable Phytochemicals Acting as a Functional Food,February 2010Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9(2):223 - 239,DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00103.x

Babb, M.F,.  James E. Kraus, and Roy Magruder.1950 Synonymy of orange-fleshed varieties of carrots
Babb, M. F. (Myron Francis), 1897- Kraus, James E. (James Ellsworth), 1909- Magruder, Roy, 1900 - Synonymy of orange-fleshed varieties of carrots  Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1950. Description 100 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Banga, O. 1957a. Origin of the European cultivated carrot. Euphytica 6:54–63.
Banga, O. 1957b. The development of the original European carrot material. Euphytica 6:64–76.
Banga, O. 1963. Main types of the western carotene carrot and their origin. W. E. J. Tjeenk
Banga, O., 1963: Origin and distribution of the western cultivated carrot. - Genetica Agraria 17, 357-370

Baranski, Rafal, Charlotte Allender , Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka, 2011 - Towards better tasting and more nutritious carrots: Carotenoid and sugar content variation in carrot genetic resources  Boswell, Victor R. (Victor Rickman),1954 - Commercial growing of carrots.  Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, [1954] Description 8 p.       
Barigozzi, C. 1986. The Origin and Domestication of Cultivated Plants. Developments in agricultural and managed-forest ecology, 16. 218 pp. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Borthwick, H. A., M. Phillips, and W. W. Robbins. 1931. Floral development in Daucus carota. Am. J. Bot. 18:784–786.
Borthwick, H. A., and S. L. Emsweller. 1933. Carrot breeding experiments. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 30:531–533.
Bradeen, J. M., and P. W. Simon. 1998. Conversion of an AFLP fragment linked to the carrot Y 2 locus to a simple, codominant PCR-based marker form. Theor. Appl. Genet.97:960–967.
Brandenburg, W. A. 1981. Possible relationships between wild and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) in the Netherlands.Kulturpflanze 29:369–375.
Brothwell, D. and Brothwell P., Food In Antiquity. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1969, pp 111-112.
Buishand, J. G., and W. H. Gabelman. 1979. Investigations on the inheritance of color and carotenoid content in phloem and xylem of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.). Euphytica 28:611–632. - Also Studies on the inheritance of root color and carotenoid content in red x yellow and red x white crosses of carrot, daucus carota l.l Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 1979

Dorofeyev, V.F. 1992. N.I. Vayilov. Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants (English). 498 pp. University Press, Cambridge.
Ellis, P. R., P. L. Saw, and T. C. Crowther. 1991. Development of carrot inbreds with resistance to carrot fly using a single seed descent programme. Ann. Appl. Biol. 119:349–357.

Emsweller, S. L., P. C. Burrell, and H. A. Borthwick. 1935. Studies on the inheritance of
color in carrots. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 33:508–511.
Esau, K. 1940. Developmental anatomy of the fleshy storage organ of Daucus carota. Hilgardia 13:175–226.

Hales History of Agriculture by Dates, 1915
Hancock, J.F. 1992. Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. 305 pp. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Harvey, JH, Vegetables in the Middle Ages - Garden History, vol12 no.2 1984

Herbals - link here

Heywood, V. H., 1983: Relationships and evolution in the Daucus carota complex. - Israel J. Bot. 32, 51-65.

Iorizzo M et al. 2013. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) (Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany 100: 930-938.

Munger, H. M. 1987. Adaptation and breeding of vegetable crops for improved human nutrition. p. 177–184. In: B. Quebedeaux and F. A. Bliss (eds.), Horticulture and human health. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Peterson, C. E., and P. W. Simon. 1986. Carrot breeding. p. 321–356. In: M. J. Bassett (ed.), Breeding vegetable crops. AVI, Westport, CT.

Que, F., Hou, XL., Wang, GL. et al. Advances in research on the carrot, an important root vegetable in the Apiaceae family. Hortic Res 6, 69 (2019).Download here. (Also contains 189 referenced academic articles)

Riggs, T. J., 1995: Carrot Daucus carota (Umbelliferae). (pp. 477-480). In: J. Smartt & N. W. Simmonds (eds.), Evolution of crop plants. 2nd ed. - Longman Sci. & Techn., Harlow, 531 pp.

Rubatzky, V. E. & M. Yamaguchi, 1997: World vegetables: principles, production and nutritive values. Chapman & Hall, New York, 843 pp.

Rubatzky VE, Quiros CF, Simon PW - Carrots and related Vegetable Umbelliferae -  - 1999 ISBN 0851991297
Rindos, D. 1984. The Origins of Agriculture. An evolutionary perspective. Academic Press, Florida.
Siemonsma, J. S. & K. Piluek (eds.), 1993: Vegetables. Plant Resources of South-East Asia, 8. - Pudoc, Wageningen, 412 pp.
Simon P 3464 P-05 7/25/2000 1:09 PM Page 186 Hybridization of Daucus carota and D. capillifolius by protoplast fusion. Theor. Appl.
Genet. 51:127–132.
Simon, P. W. 1992. Genetic improvement of vegetable carotene content. p. 291–300. In:D. D. Bills and S.-D. Kung (eds.), Biotechnology and nutrition: Proc. Third Int. Symp.Butterworth-Heinemann, London..

Simon, P. W. 1996. Inheritance and expression of purple and yellow storage root color in carrot. J. Hered. 87:63–66.

Simon, P. W., W. C. Matthews, and P. A. Roberts. 2000. Evidence for simply inherited dominant resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in carrot. Theor. Appl. Genet., 100:735–742.

Simon, P. W., C. E. Peterson, and R. C. Lindsay. 1980. Genetic and environmental influences on carrot flavor. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:416–420.

Simon PW. Domestication, historical development, and modern breeding of carrot. Plant Breeding Rev. 2000; 19: 157±190.

Simon, Lorizzo et al A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution 2016 - Nature Genetics 48, 657–666 (2016) doi:10.1038/ng.3565

Small, E., 1978: A numerical taxonomic analysis of the Daucus carota complex. - Canad. J. Bot. 56, 248-276.
Smartt & N. W. Simmonds (eds.), Evolution of crop plants. 2nd ed. - Longman Sci. & Techn., Harlow, 531 pp.

Sáenz Laín, C., 1981: Research on Daucus L. (Umbellifereae). - Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 37, 481-533.
The impact of domestication on the genetic variability in the orange carrot, cultivated Daucus carota ssp. sativus and the genetic homogeneity of various cultivars - journal TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics Springer Berlin / Heidelberg ISSN 0040-5752 (Print) 1432-2242 (Online)

Stolarczyk & Janick, journal Chronica Horticulturae. Carrot History and Iconography - a fascinating journey through the Carrot's development from Wild to Orange and beyond. Full copy here (page 13 onwards). Extract here.

Vavilov, N.I. 1926. Studies on the Origin of Cultivated Plants. 248 pp. Leningrad.
Zagorodskikh, P., 1939: New data on the origin and taxonomy of cultivated carrot. - Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 25, 520-523.
Zeven, A. C. & J. M. J. de Wet, 1982: Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity, 2nd. ed. - Pudoc, Wageningen, 263 pp.

Zohary D et al. 2013. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Oxford University Press.

The seven books of Paulus Aegineta : translated from the Greek : with a commentary embracing a complete view of the knowledge possessed by the Greeks, Romans, and Arabians on all subjects connected with medicine and surgery (1844)

Brandenburg.W  Possible Relationships between wild and cultivated carrots in the Netherlands. Kulturpflanze 1981 pps 369-375

A.C. ZEVEN - The history of the medieval vegetable garden of the common man and woman: the poorness of descriptions and pictures.

Zeven & Brandenburg - Use of Paintings from the 16th to 19th Centuries to Study the History of Domesticated Plants, 1986 = Economic Botany 40(4) pps 397-448.

Zhukovsky, P.M. 1982. World Genofund of plants for breeding. Mega-gene centers and endemic microcenters. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity A.C. Zevin and J.M.J. de Wet (eds) 259 p. Center for agricultural publishing and Documentation Waneningen.

Carrots and related Vegetable Umbelliferae - Rubatzky VE, Quiros CF, Simon PW - 1999 ISBN 0851991297

Carrots - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References (Paperback)
by Health Publica Icon Health Publications (Author)
Handbook of Plant Breeding – vol 2 – Vegetables - ISBN 978-0-387-74108-6
Herfruit S.L., Brief History of the Carrot. Internet publication at
Quality and Preservation of Vegetables By Neason Akivah Michael Eskin Published by CRC Press, 1989 ISBN 0849355605, 9780849355608 n (many references)

Items Located in JSTOR - Journals Archive:

History of the Vegetable Kingdom William Rhind, 1857
History of Inventions, Discoveries and Origins, John Beckman. 1846
Origin and history of Garden Vegetables, Prof G Henslow, 1912 (RHS publication)
On the Origins of Kitchen Gardening in the Ancient Near EastHelen M. Leach Garden History, Vol. 10, No. 1. (Spring, 1982), pp. 1-16.

Account of the Culture of Carrots in Norfolk, Robert Billing, 1756
Some remarks on carrot breeding (Daucus carota sativus Hoffm.) M. Stein and Th. Nothnagel - 1995
Development and Structure of Carotene Bodies in Carrot Roots
Author(s): Yehuda Ben-Shaul and Shimon Klein
Source: Botanical Gazette, Vol. 126, No. 2, (Jun., 1965), pp. 79-85
History of Garden Vegetables, L Sturtevant 1887, American Natualist
Origin of Domesticated Vegetable, L Sturtevant, 1884, Botanical Gazette
The Plants in John Evelyn’s “Elysium Britannicum”JOHN H. HARVEY (extract 1998)
The first description of Daucus carota is by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum (ed. I, 1753, p. 242):
Plant  Taxonomy and the Origin of Cultivated Plants Hui-Lin Li*  1974
Paintings from the 16th to 18th centuries by Flemish and North-Netherlands artists as a source for investigating the evolution of vegetables:a summary A.C. ZEVEN

Gabriel Metsu's Vegetable Market at Amsterdam: Seventeenth-Century Dutch Market Paintings and Horticulture - Linda Stone-Ferrier,The Art Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 3. (Sep., 1989), pp. 428-452.
Painting in the Dutch Golden Age -A Profile of the Seventeenth Century - National Gallery of Art, Washington 2007
The Carrot as a Food in the Classical Era,Alfred C. Andrews - Classical Philology, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Jul., 1949), pp. 182-196.
History of Cultivated Vegetable, Henry Philips, 1822

USDA GRIN Database -
Carrots with Character (USDA Research) -
Carrot Facts:
How to obtain carrot varieties:
Carrot Database – University of Saskatchewan -
USDA Carrot and Garlic Genetics page -
USDA Plants Database -
Internet Food Links:

Wikipedia -

Here are some recommended books about the History of Food:
(The) Food Chronology: A Food Lover's Compendium of Events and Anecdotes, from Prehistory to the Present
by James Trager

(The) Cambridge World History of Food
(2-Vol. Boxed Set) edited by Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas

Food in History by Reay Tannahill

From Hardtack to Home Fries: An Uncommon History of American Cooks and Meals
by Barbara Haber

(The) Origins of Fruit & Vegetables
by Jonathan Roberts

Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices
by Andrew Dalby

In the Devil's Garden: A Sinful History of Forbidden Foods
by Stewart Lee Allen

Near a Thousand Tables: A History of Food
by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

Other, Less Relevant, but nonetheless interesting Sources:

1 New England Journal of Medicine 86;315[20]:125-1254
2 Brit Med Journal 90;300:771-773
3 Medical Tribune, April 8, 1993 "Carrot, Spinach and Diet Tied to Lower Stroke Risk."
4 Nut Cancer 91;15[3&4]:240-247.
5 Brit Medical Journal 92;305:335-339.
6 Inv Optha Visual Science 92;33:1097.
7 The Journal of the Am. Diabetic Assoc. 1993;93(12)1442-1444
8 Journal of Microbiology, 1988.
9. Rindos, D., The Origins of Agriculture. The Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, 1984, p 150.
C. ALASALVAR, J. M. Grigor, D. Zhang, and P. C. Quantick. Dept. of Biological & Food Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincolnshire & Humberside, Nun's Corner, North East Lincolnshire, Grimsby, DN34 5AZ, United Kingdom
Sources: Millspaugh, Charles F. American Medicinal Plants. NY: Dover Publications, 1974.
Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees. Nashville : Charles and Randy Elders, Publishers, 1982.
Weiner, Michael. Earth Medicine Earth Food. NY: Fawcett Columbine, 1980
Susanne Ashworth, Seed to Seed, Seed Saver Exchange 1991
Jeremy Cherfas ( ed.) The Vegetable Finder HDRA Coventry UK. 1993
Stephen Facciolla Cornucopia : A Book of Edible Plants Kampong Publications 1990
Michel and Jude Fanton The Seed Savers Handbook Seed Savers Network 1994
McLeod, Judyth Dr., Heritage Gardening, SimonandSchuster, 1994
Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix, Vegetables, Pan Books, 1993
Keith Smith Classic Vegetable Catalogue Lothian 1995
Watson, Benjamin, Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996
Kent Whealy The Garden Seed Inventory ( Fourth Edition ) Seed Savers Exchange 1995
Grieve, M., A Modern Herbal, Tiger, Great Britain, 1994. Mills, S., The Complete Guide to Modern Herbalism, Thorsons, Great Britain, 1994.
Medieval herbal remedies: the Old English herbarium and Anglo-Saxon medicine By Anne Van Arsdall ISBN 041593849X
Bradley, P.R.(Ed.), British Herbal Compendium Volume I, British Herbal Medicine Association, 1992.
Hoffmann, D., The New Holistic Herbal, Element, Dorset, 1990.
McGuffin, M., Hobbs, C., Upton, R., Goldberg, A., American Herbal Products Association - Botanical Safety Handbook, CRC Press, 1997.
British Herbal Medical Association, British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1983, British Herbal Medical Association, 1989.
Motram, L., Herbal Materia Medica Course Notes, 1983.
Willard, T., The Wild Rose Scientific Herbal, Wild Rose College of Natural Healing Ltd, Alberta, Canada, 1991.
Priest, A.W. and Priest, L.R. Herbal Medication. A Clinical and Dispensary Handbook. London: L.N. Fowler & Co. Ltd.
Brockhampton Press, Guide to Herbal Remedies, Brockhampton Press, London, 1996.
Lust, J., The Herb Book, Bantam Books, USA, 1974. Singh Y. N., Blumenthal, M., Kava culture, then & now, Herbs for Health, Vol 2, No 6: 56-60, 1998.
McCaleb, R., Herbal Help for Prostate Problems, Herbs for Health, Spring/Summer 1996, pp 26- 28.
Whole Food Facts, Evelyn Roehl
Healing Arts Press 1988, ISBN 0-89281-231-1
The Herb Book, John B Lust, ND, DBM, Bantam Books1974, ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Aromatherapy, The Encyclopedia of Plants and Oils and how they help you, Daniele Ryman, Piatkus 1991, ISBN 0-7499-1156-5

From earth to art: the many aspects of the plant-world in Anglo-Saxon ... By Carole Patricia Biggam, Anglo-Saxon Plant-Name Survey. Symposium

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